A renal biopsy or kidney biopsy is a procedure used to extract kidney tissue for histopathology analysis.
There are two different ways to perform a renal biopsy.
1. Percutaneous kidney biopsy
2. Open kidney biopsy
Percutaneous kidney biopsy, the most common type of renal biopsy, is performed by inserting a thin biopsy needle through the skin to remove kidney tissue. It is done under real time guidance of ultrasound and sometimes under CT guidance. In an open biopsy—or surgical biopsy—surgeon makes a cut in the skin near the kidneys, through which under direct vision of the kidney, tissue samples is taken.
A renal biopsy can identify problems that are interfering with normal kidney function. If routine blood & urine tests indicate that your kidneys are not doing their job properly, a kidney biopsy is advised. The main indications are for evaluation of :
Kidney biopsy at our centers is done by nephrologist. Patient is admitted on the day of biopsy. Few medications need to be discontinued before a biopsy is undertaken (eg. Aspirin, clopidogrel). Light breakfast is allowed on the day of biopsy following which patient is kept nil per mouth. Procedure takes about an hour. Kidney biopsy is done under local anesthesia and patient is awake during the procedure. Biopsy is done in prone position except in kidney transplant cases where it is done in patient lying supine. After preparing the site with betadine and spirit, under USG guidance, kidney is localized. Local anesthesia is given. With biopsy gun kidney tissue is obtained. Kidney tissue is put in saline and formalin and sends to pathologist for staining and analysis. Patient is put on bed rest in supine position for 24 hours. During this time vitals monitoring is done regularly. In the absence of any complication patient is discharged the next day.